Chapter 2 - Accuracy & Precision
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It is not possible to measure the true value of a quantity. The
magnitude of the error is due to the precision of the measuring device,
the proper calibration of the device, and the competent application of
the device. This is different than a gross mistake or blunder. A blunder
is due to an improper application of the measuring device, such as a
misreading of the measurement. Careful and deliberate laboratory
practices should eliminate most blunders.

To determine the error associated with a measurement, scientists
often refer to the
precision and accuracy of the measurement.
Most people believe accuracy and precision to mean the same thing.
However, for people who make measurements for a living, the two
terms are quite different. To understand the difference between these
two properties, let us use the analogy of the marksman who uses a
gun to fire bullets at a target. In this analogy, the gun is the instrument,
the marksman is the operator of the instrument, and the results are
determined by the location of the bullet holes in the target.

precision of an experiment is a measure of the reliability of the
experiment, or how reproducible the experiment is. In this figure, we
see that the marksman's instrument was quite precise, since his
results were uniform due to the use of a sighting scope. However, the
instrument did not provide accurate results since the shots were not
centered on the target's bull's eye. The fact that his results were
precise, but not accurate, could be due to a misaligned sighting
scope, or a consistent operator error. Therefore precision tells us
something about the quality of the instrument's operation.

accuracy of an experiment is a measure of how closely the
experimental results agree with a true or accepted value. In this figure,
we see a different experimental result. Here, the shots are centered on
the bull's eye but the results were not uniform, indicating that the
marksman's instrument displayed good accuracy but poor precision.
This could be the result of a poorly manufactured gun barrel. In this
case, the marksman will never achieve both accuracy and precision,
even if he very carefully uses the instrument. If he is not satisfied with
the results he must change his equipment. Therefore accuracy tells us
something about the quality or correctness of the result.

As scientists, we desire our results to be
both precise and accurate.
As shown in this figure, the shots are all uniform and centered on the
bull's eye. This differs from the first figure in that the marksman has
compensated for the poorly aligned sighting scope

One benefit of taking many measurements of a single property is that
blunders are easily detected. In the figure below we see that the
results are both accurate and precise with the exception of an obvious
blunder. Because several measurements were made, we can discount
the errant data point as an obvious mistake, probably due to operator