Chapter 5 - States of Matter
Changes of State
We have already learned that there are three main states of matter.

Solid - particles are stuck together and vibrate in place
Liquid - particles are moving (flowing) over one another
Gas - particles are flying apart.

But what are the forces that cause this?
Intermolecular Forces

These are the forces that pull the particles together when they are apart, but they keep the
particles from ever getting too close together.

The phases of matter (solid, liquid, gas) exist because of competition between thermal
energy and intermolecular forces.
When molecules have a large amount of thermal energy (high temperatures),
intermolecular forces are overcome and the molecules spread apart, as in a gas.
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