While metals are highly regarded because of their unique qualities, they are also, generally,
not useful in their pure forms. The very qualities that make them unique can also make them
useless. They are too soft and malleable. So, much effort has been put into finding ways to
keep the basic metallic qualities, but modify them so that they are not so extreme.

  • The introduction of a non-metallic element into a metal will cut down on
    malleability and ductility. Why?
Anything which diminishes the electron sea will reduce malleability and ductility.  This
process is used on 'carbon hardened' knives to give them stronger and hold a sharper edge.

  • The introduction of a non-metallic element into a metal will cut down on
    electrical conductivity. Why?
Anything which diminishes the electron sea will inhibit the easy flow of electrons.

    The introduction of a non-metallic element into a metal will cut down on thermal
    conductivity. Why?
    Anything which introduces rigid bonding into the metal will restrict the ability of the
    kernels to vibrate. With this loss of vibration, the system will not be readily able to
    conduct heat.
Metallic Bonds  - Mixing in Non-Metals