Chapter 11 - Organic Chemistry
Carbohydrates, Proteins
& Fats
Carbohydrates consist of the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) with
a ratio of hydrogen twice that of carbon and oxygen. Carbohydrates include sugars,
starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. In their
basic form, carbohydrates are simple sugars or monosaccharides. These simple
sugars can combine with each other to form more complex carbohydrates. The
combination of two simple sugars is a disaccharide. Carbohydrates consisting of two
to ten simple sugars are called oligosaccharides, and those with a larger number are
called polysaccharides.
Carbohydrates - Sugars to Starches
Monosaccharides - Simple Sugars
Frutcose
Disaccharides - Complex Sugars
Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose
common Table Sugar
Disaccharides - Complex Sugars
Starch
Digestible by people into simple sugars.
Cellulose
Used by plants for support
Not digestible by people.
Xanthan
Sticky carbohydrate that makes gum
chewy.